Tuesday, June 10, 2008

MODULE 4: Planning 3 History Part 3



Like other cities in the world the earliest Filipino communities developed out of the need for their inhabitants to band together.

They were formed for security, or to be close to critical resources like food and water. Most of the earliest towns were by the coast for the fisherfolk or were where there was abundant agricultural land for the farmers.

The basic socio-political unit was the barangay, consisting of 30 to 100 families; decentralized; located along coast lines and riverbanks; agricultural and fishing villages


Manila became capital

1573 – Laws of the Indies pronounced by King Philipp II – Spanish town planning influenced by the Romans and the Piazza planning of Italian Renaissance

1596 – spatial segregation along racial and social lines – Indios and Chinese have separate districts; Parian or market – spatial concentration of merchants and artisans to regulate the exchange of goods

1600s to 1700s – process of Hispanization through the founding of cabeceras (poblaciones) and visitas (barrios); natives living on the unplanned fringes of the neighborhood; debajo de las campanas

Laws of the Indies:
- In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the Laws of the Indies that established uniform standards and planning procedures for colonial settlements.
- These laws provided guidelines for site selection, layout and dimensioning of streets and squares, the location of civic and religious buildings, open space, cultivation and pasturing lands, and even the main procedural phases of planning and construction.

The Plaza Complex:
- a result of several ordinances of the Laws of the Indies.
- The plaza is surrounded by important buildings such as the Catholic church, municipal hall, Marketplace and merchant’s stores, elementary school, the homes of the “principalia”, and other government buildings

Intramuros - the walled City of Manila
- 1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM
- home of the Spanish (except for the friars & the high ranking officials)
- decentralization occurred and settlements were built in Malate, San Miguel, and Paco, among other areas

early 1600s – Manila became the first primate city in Southeast Asia.

1650 – chapels or small churches in the cabecera were built to attract tenacious natives from the barrios (hinterlands) through fiestas and processions

1790s – opening of the Manila- Acapulco galleon trade; emergence of semi-urban places in the provinces

1850s-late 1800s – Chinese dominated central commercial business districts in al settlements; commercial shops on the ground floors of centrally located houses; no more spatially segregated peripheral clusters of Chinese.; decentralized residential pattern for Spaniards


1890s – other port cities continue to become regional urban centers; bridges were built along postal routes facilitating transport in Luzon.

1903 – City of Manila was incorporated covering Intramuros and 12 fast-growing suburban towns.

The American Agenda:
- guide urban growth and physical development
- put more emphasis on other values such as sanitation, housing, and aesthetic improvements.

1905 – Manila and Baguio Plans of Daniel Burnham introduced the City Beautiful western type of town planning.

Burnham’s Design for Manila:
- Designed with grand avenues & a strong central civic core
- Included a civic mall to house national buildings (only the Finance
&Agriculture buildings were built)
- Fronted Manila Bay like most Baroque plans fronted a large body of water

1910 – rebuilding of settlements complete with hygiene and sanitary facilities and drainage systems called sanitary barrios.

1920s - Barrio Obrero or the working class district evolved as government response to the needs of low-income labor families in urban areas.

1928 – zoning ordinance for Manila promulgated but took effect only in 1940; zoning became popular in America in the 1920s.

Manila as the First Chartered City:
- On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No. 183, the city of Manila was incorporated
- Manila encompassed Intramuros, and the towns of Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco, and Pandacan.
- The population then was 190,000 people

Growth of Manila:
The Arrabales
Quiapo- the illustrado territory; the enclave of the rich and powerful. Also the manifestation of folk religiosity.
Binondo- the trading port developed by the Chinese and Arabs
Sta. Cruz- the main commercial district with swirls of shops, movie houses, restaurants, etc.
San Nicolas- also a commercial town built by the Spanish with streets of “specialized” categories (i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
Sampaloc- centered on two churches (Our Lady of Loreto and Saint Anthony of Padua). Also known as the first “University Town”.


After the war - RA 333 designated Quezon city as new Capital and master planning it by the Capital City Planning Commission.

In 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 457, authorized the transfer of the capitol to an area of 1572 hectares

A master plan of Quezon City was completed in 1941 by Architects Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, and Eng. A.D. Williams

“City beautiful” plan reflected the aspirations of an emerging nation and the visions of a passionate leader

Constitution Hill:
- In 1946, a search committee was formed to find a new site
- a 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed was selected and called Constitution Hill and National Government Center
- The three seats of government were to form a triangle at the center of the complex
- It included a 20 hectare civic Space referred to as the Plaza of the Republic

1950s - National Planning Commission (later on as NEDA) was established.

RA 2264 – local Autonomy Act of 1959 empowered LGUs to enact zoning ordinances and subdivision rules; all towns and cities required to form planning boards to craft development plans under the guidance of the NPC

1987 Constitution and Local Government Code of 1991 – devolved powers to LGUs; local autonomy; developments plans under the supervision of NEDA.


Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation
- Precursor of the National Housing Authority
- Built homes for the masses (“the projects”, i.e. proj.4, proj. 6, etc.)

Philamlife Homes
- icon of middle class suburbanization
- Master Plan designed by Architect and Planner, Carlos P. Arguelles, based on suburban developments in California with modifications

BLISS (bagong lipunan sites and services)
- Walk-up developments for government sector

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