Friday, October 31, 2008
1. What ancient roman term refers to an individual who worked in the sanitary field of ancient Rome?
2. What is the title given to a person who is a skilled worker in the field of sanitation?
3. NPCP refers to:
4. Its complete RA no:
5. What is the meaning of BOD?
6. Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with __________.
7. Plumbing is defined as the art and science of ___________ pipes, fixtures and other apparatus.
8. What is the general role of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering?
9. This promulgated the design and layout of a plumbing system that is governed by set of rules
10. In the 17th century, the English parliamentary passed the first ___________ laws.
1. What period was plumbing revived? It is the period when Europe was plagued with epidemics.
2. Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to presentation of the strength of ___________ and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage.
3. In what civilization did the concept and importance of plumbing became more defined and appreciated?
4. The ability of an area resource system to support the activities of a given population.
5. ____________ is a part of ecosystem and is the major contributor to pollution of the environment.
6. ____________, including fixtures, shall be maintained and properly usable
7. This the pollutant that affects the quality of water due to impact of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) discharges, that rises when temperature rises.
8. An act which regulate the Practice of Sanitary Engineering in the Philippines.
1. In 1907, a division of plumbing construction and inspection, with the city of Manila as a model, was headed by whom?
2. This act is known as __________ that was approved on June 18, 1955.
3. The liquid and water borne waste derived form the ordinary living process, free from industrial wastes, and of such character as to permit satisfactory disposal without special treatment into the public sewer or by means of private disposal system.
4. The 1999 NAMPAF Plumbing Code Review Committee President.
1. When was the Rep. Act No. 1378, also known as the National Plumbing Code of the Philippines approved?
2. When was the practice of Plumbing in the Philippines initiated?
3. What is the act for Water Quality Management?
1. TRUE OR FALSE : Sanitation is the field of public health dealing with environmental degration and prevention and control of diseases
2. TRUE OR FALSE : The design and layout of plumbing system is governed by a set of rules promulgated by the National Standard Plumbing Code (NSPC)
3. Plumbarius is to individual who worked in the sanitary field, while Plumbum is to ___________.
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
1. ___________ is the most satisfactory means of water distribution.
2. In this method of distribution, the excess water pumped during periods of low consumption is stored in elevated tanks or reservoir.
3. In dual main systems, ____________ are added on the south and west sides of streets and piping is generally placed beneath sidewalks.
4. ____________, sometimes called arterial mains, for in the skeleton of the distribution system.
5. ____________ is used for city water pipes.
6. ____________ is used for pipelines, truck mains and inverted siphon where pressures are high and sizes are large.
7. ____________ a stronger and more elastic type of cast iron used in newer plumbing installation.
8. A chemical reaction which involves the removal of metallic electrons from metals and formation of more stable compounds.
1. Consist of a cylinder in which a piston or a plunger moves backwards and forwards.
2. Used to raise water from shallow depths and used most frequently for individual houses.
3. ____________ is a pump that increases the pressure within the distribution system or raise water to an elevated water storage tank.
4. Pump that lifts surface water and move it to a nearby treatment plant.
5. Pump that discharge treated water into arterial mains.
1. Used to supply or remove water from a building.
2. Centrifugal casting on metal moulds is sometimes called ____________ .
3. Necessitates a large pipe or conduit so that velocities will be low but not low enough to allow sedimentation.
1. Generally, the equalizing volume of a water thank that is about ____________ of the total daily demand.
2. In residential areas having houses up to 4 storeys high, the pressure in the pipes should be between _____________.
1. High service system is high lying areas; while _____________ is to low lying areas
2. TRUE OR FALSE : Water distribution is a network of pumps, pipelines, storage tanks and appurtenances.
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
1. It is a special type of underground water that is found on islands or in the coastal regions near the sea.
2. This should be supplied with water in sufficient volume or at adequate pressure to enable them to function properly.
3. Flush tanks which are directly connected to the potable water supply system should be equipped with approved ___________.
4. _____________ is a junction between water supply systems through which water from doubtful or unsafe sources may enter an otherwise safe supply.
5. What are the 3 main sources of water supply?
6. _____________ is required to be installed so as to register the amount of water supplied to a building.
7. _____________ is used to prevent back siphonage.
8. ______________ permits water drawn into a fixture tank or similar devices to flow back into the supply line by gravity or siphonage.
1. ______________ is when water contains visible material in suspension
2. ______________ is caused by material in solution or a colloidal state should be distinguished from turbidity.
3. The carbonate and bicarbonate of calcium, sodium and magnesium are the common impurities which cause ______________.
4. _______________ in water causes hardness, and in small amount it will cause taste, discoloration of clothes and plumbing fixtures and incrustations in water mains.
5. Excavation for the installation of underground water supply piping should be _____________.
1. The proportional change in length corresponding to 1°F change in temperature is known as the _______________.
2. ________________ is water bearing stratum.
3. There are two types of well____________ & ____________.
SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
1. The recommended slope for the house drain.
2. A type of house drain that receives the discharges of sanitary and domestic waste only.
3. A drainage pipe that carries on is designed to carry human excretement.
4. A drainage pipe that carries liquid waste that not include human excretement.
5. Water that is safe to drink, pleasant to the taste and usable for domestic purposes.
6. A communicable disease which may be transmitted by water include bacterial, viral and protozoal infections.
7. A water is _____________ when it contains visible material in suspension.
1. MCL means
2. A type of house drain that receives discharges of sanitary as well as storm water.
3. This type of drain is now considered obsolete and not advisable.
4. In large buildings, _____________ are usually suspended from the basement ceiling.
1. A cleanout shall be provided on the house drain as near as possible the ______________ of the building.
2. A kind of drain that should terminate into a separate drainage system.
3. The house drain should be provided with adequate number of _____________.
1. The complete PD No. of CODE OF SANITATION OF THE PHILIPPINES.
2. Boating, shooting or fishing should not be allowed within ____________ of the water intake.
1. TRUE OR FALSE : In changing house drain directions, the branch shall be run at right angle as a floor drain.
2. TRUE OR FALSE : A cleanout extended above the floor can also be utilized as floor drain.
3. TRUE OR FALSE : All changes of direction shall be done with short radius fittings.
SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM
1. A concrete vault constructed for the collection of raw sewage sealed with a wooden shelter.
2. A receptacle in which liquids are retained for sufficient period to the deposit settle able material.
3. A hole in the ground with stone and bricks laid in such manner as to allow raw contaminated sewage to leach under the surface of the ground.
4. The main sewer is financed and maintained by ____________.
5. ____________ is the liquid conveyed by a sewer.
6. ____________ is water which enters sewers from surface sources such as graces in manholes, open cleanouts, perforated manhole covers and roof drains or basement sumps connected to the sewer.
7. A pipe venting acid waste system.
8. A watertight container of sewage.
1. A permanently installed mechanical device for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump other than ejector.
2. This bacteria functions in absence of free oxygen.
3. Considered as the oldest type of sewer.
4. Minimum width for septic tank.
1. That portion of the horizontal drainage system which starts from the outer face of the building and terminate at the main sewer in the street or septic tank.
2. Sometimes referred to as “the collection line of a plumbing system.”
3. The septic tank should be double compartment and should be capable of holding how many times of daily waste water flow.
1. The complete RA No. of ECOLOGICAL SLOID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT 2000.
2. How many percent of the total sewage solids is organic and subject to rotting.
1. TRUE OR FALSE : The minimum depth for septic tank is 1.20m
2. TRUE OR FALSE : No septic tank shall be installed within under a house.
TRUE OR FALSE : Septic tank should be located not less than 15m away from potable water to prevent contamination.
STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM
1. What do you call the drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain pipe?
2. An element composed of an atom of Oxygen and two atoms for Hydrogen, otherwise known as H2O.
3. What is the immersion in a fluid for a definite period of time, usually expressed as a percent of weight of the dry pipe?
4. This type of storm drain is used in buildings located in congested business areas.
5. It is that unit of the plumbing system which conveys storm water to a satisfactory terminal.
6. It is often referred to as conductor or downspout. It is also the portion of the storm drainage system which extends between storm drain & the roof terminal
7. This type of storm drain is advisable on buildings where an ample amount of ground space between buildings is available.
8. A type of storm drain that is suspended from the basement ceiling by substantial hangers, placed at close intervals, and generally is adapted to buildings where public storm sewer is not sufficiently deep in the street.
1. This is the type of storm drain located under the basement floor within the walls of the building and is used in buildings located in congested business areas.
2. What do you call that unit of the plumbing system which conveys storm water to a satisfactory terminal?
3. Rainwater piping should not be used as:
4. Roof drains shall not be made of __________.
1. The outside roof leader is located on the _____
2. The inside roof leader is installed ___________
3. What do you call the drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain pipe?
4. All storm drains should be graded at least
5. This type of terminal should be used only where the public sewer discharges its contents into a terminal other than a disposal plant.
1. A connection and installation of rainwater systems are found in what section of the NPCP?
2. What chapter of the NPCP discusses about storm drainage system?
1. The roof leader is extended _________ through the floors of the building to a point just below the roof & is then extended _________ to reduce the danger of breakage which may result because of expansion and contraction of the roof.
2. Conductor is to vertical; __________ is to horizontal
3. Catch basin is a receptacle in which _________ are retained for a sufficient period of time to allow settle able material to deposit
4. TRUE OR FALSE : The discharge capacity of the pipe varies according to its length and grade per foot.
5. TRUE OR FALSE : One factor which makes the sizing of storm drain difficult is the matter of grouping rainfall over a given period.
6. TRUE OR FALSE : Another element to consider in determining the size of the drain is the depth of the building.
7. TRUE OR FALSE : The storm drain is connected to the sewer at right angles by means of a 45° Y and curve assembled in exactly the same manner as a sanitary house sewer connection.
8. TRUE OR FALSE : The change of direction at the highest point of the conductor should be made by means of an elbow & 45° fitting.
9. TRUE OR FALSE : The base of the roof leader must be provided with a concrete or stone foundation.
10. TRUE OR FALSE : If the roof leader is constructed of galvanized steel, it must be supported at every floor with a pipe rest.
11. TRUE OR FALSE : Horizontal runs may not be suspended from band iron hangers or steel ring hangers anchored in the structure
12. TRUE OR FALSE : The roof leader is extended vertically through the floors of the building to a point just below the roof and is then extended horizontally to reduce the danger of breakage which may result because of expansion and contraction of the roof.
13. TRUE OR FALSE : A cast-iron strainer basket is attached to the drain to prevent stones, leaves and other materials from entering the conductor.
14. TRUE OR FALSE : Roof drains are provided with a copper flashing, or in some instances, with a cast-iron clamp so that the joint between the roof and the conductor will be water-tight.
15. TRUE OR FALSE : A roof leader may be terminated by placing a hub of cast-iron soil pipe flush with the roof.
14. TRUE OR FALSE : Roof drains are provided with a copper flashing, or in some instances, with a cast-iron clamp so that the joint between the roof and the conductor will be water-tight.
15. TRUE OR FALSE : Changes in direction of the roof leader must always be of short radius so the flow water in the conductor will not be retarded, except where the change is from horizontal to vertical direction.
1. Do appurtenances need direct connection to water supply?
2. What type of plumbing material is a water heater?
3. What do you call a faucet opened or closed by the fall or rise of a ball floating on the surface of water?
4. What is the most expensive type of all pipes?
5. What type of pipe is durable and has extreme resistance to corrosion?
6. What type of plumbing material is a water closet?
7. What type of pipe is the most specified material need for drainage installation in buildings?
8. What plumbing material receives water-bourn wastes?
9. What type of plumbing material is a soap dispenser?
1. CISPI stands for:
2. “U” in UPVC stands for
3. The use of cast-iron pipes should be limited to buildings ______stories in height.
4. It is a non-metallic plumbing material?
5. Acid-resistant pipe usually is an alloy of cast-iron and ____________.
6. A gate valve whose body and bonnet are held together by a “u” bolt clamp.
1. A device that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
2. Pipes that are used to underground public sewers, house sewer and drains. It is made up of clay and also resistant to acids.
3. This type of trap is used in many localities where venting is not required by local ordinances. This device permits the waste to flow through it rapidly.
1. This policy creates, develops, maintain and improve the conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with each other.
2. A decree instituting a water code, thereby reviving and consolidating the laws governing the ownership, utilization, development, conservation, etc. of water resources.
1. The type of drain used in building located in congested business areas.
2. Ball cock is to input;__________ is to output.
3. Downspout is the __________ portion of rain water conductor
Wednesday, October 29, 2008
Definition of Site Planning
Site planning is the art and science of arranging the uses of portions of land.
Site planners designate these uses in detail by selecting and analyzing sites, forming land use plans, organizing vehicular and pedestrian circulation, developing visual form and materials concepts, readjusting the existing landforms by design grading, providing proper drainage, and finally developing the construction details to carry out their projects.
Site planners arrange for the accommodation of the program of activities clients have specified.
They must relate these components to each other, the sites, and structures and activities on adjacent sites – for whether sites are small or big, they must be viewed as part of the total environment.
Site planning is the organization of the external physical environment to accommodate human behavior.
It deals with the qualities and locations of structures, land, activities, and living things.
It creates a pattern of those elements in space and time, which will be subject to continuous future management and change.
The technical output – the grading plans, utility layout, survey locations, planting plans, sketches, diagrams, and specifications -–are simply a conventional way of specifying this complex organization.
Site Concepts and Principles (Kevin Lynch)
- Every site is a unique interconnected web of things and activities that imposes limitations and offers possibilities.
- A site or project/planning area varies in size, location and characteristics. (can be located anywhere on land or beside a body of water, or may concern a small cluster of houses, a single building and its grounds, or something as extensive as a small community built in a single operation).
-“A site in its own right is a living, changing community of plants and animals.” Such a community also has its own interests that should be conserved, preserved or protected.
-Knowledge of the site is vital in planning especially in mitigating competing or conflicting interests between potential users and existing occupants to avert natural disasters such as severe erosion, water intrusion, flooding, a drop in the water table, etc.
- The site and its intended purpose are closely interrelated
- Understanding the site to define or establish the essential character or nature of the site or “the spirit of the place” (genius loci) to maintain, to some degree, a continuity of the preexisting conditions within the locale. Every place has a character, which may include the wider landscape or may be local to a street or village.
- A sufficient knowledge and understanding of the nature of the site would make the planner much conscious and sensitive to the site’s distinct character and “closely knit” complexity “as to be worthy of his interest, concern and even his affection.”
- Understanding the site has two branches – one oriented to the users’ and the other to the site itself.
Objectives of Site Planning
Site planning is concerned with the environment around buildings, open spaces within the built environment and areas which are non-agricultural.
- It provides a means of identifying and understanding problems that arise from the relationship between man and the land.
- Decide the best location of each land use and each activity at site.
- Who are to use the land, what activities they are likely to want to do there and what sort of environment is required if the users have to get a high level of satisfaction out of participating in site planning
- How analysis of the site’s environment (physical/social/ environmental/ cultural/political) are required by each activity could be used to decide which part of the site can stay the same, which parts need to be changed and what these changes aim to achieve. (impacts)
- How to influence the appearance of the site by developing appropriate landscape types and using suitable landscape management methods. (methods/environmental quality)
- How to work out the details of what should happen on a given area of land; how it should happen & what it will cost to implement and manage the project on the area of land.
Essence of Site Planning
According to Beer, the essence of site planning allows all concerned stakeholders to think systematically through the whole range of issues that relate to deciding what should happen on an area of land (site planning is multi-dimensional / multi-stakeholder / multi-sectoral activity)
- no one particular viewpoint is considered
- “holistic viewpoint”
- “multi-dimensional” viewpoint
- “comprehensive” viewpoint
- Think through all the problem that are likely to be associated with developing the site or changing its use.
- Site planning attempts to consider the site in relation to the interest of society as a whole as well as those of the developer/client when determining what activities should or should not happen on land with the least possible adverse effect on the environment as a whole.
- Economic / social issues factored in to accommodate the interest of developer, politicians especially.
- ultimate decision-maker would be the developer guided by
a. policy – CLUP, laws, ordinances
b. systems and procedures / dev’t control
c. financial / economic constraints
d. market demand
- focus more on the analysis of the physical / natural environment to determine constraints to land development / building development.
- To ensure that necessary expansive solutions are not chosen
- Site planning can help to reduce long term management cost associated with operating on a site.
When to do Site Planning?
- A client has an intended use in mind (the project has been identified) and has identified a site (site is available). The site planner proceeds with the planning process.
- A client has an intended use in mind (the project has been identified) but does not know where to build the project (site is not yet available). In this case, a site planner is commissioned to identify an appropriate site based on the needs of the client and plan the property.
- A client has a piece of property (the site is available) but does not know what to do with it (the project has not been identified). In this case, a site planner is commissioned to determine the best use for the property and plan it.
Site Planning Process
- A thorough assessment of the natural environment and the associated physical characteristics of the site and its surroundings.
- A detailed analysis of the users and their requirements in terms of facilities for each activity and the sort of environment needed to enable the activity to take place (environmental setting) with the maximum possible user satisfaction.
- An assessment of the potential of the site, based on the relationship between the physical characteristics of the site and the user requirements.
- An assessment of possibilities for changing the physical characteristics of the site to make a better match between the users and the site.
- Assessing the impact on the natural and visual environments of any changes to the physical aspects of the site.
- Proposing a plan for the site which is a balance between man’s requirements and the need to ensure the conservation and enhancement of the natural environment.
Stages in the Production of a Site Plan
(As a cycle of events, site planning generally involves a sequence of stages that begins when a developer or client of the site planner decides to develop a site to the production of design briefs. The flow chart below summarizes the general process taken in the production of a site plan - Beer, 1990) 1. Client wants to develop a site
2. Technical Team assembled
3. Key Issues Identified
4. Alternative Site Examined
5. Discussions with local planners/stakeholders
6. SITE INVENTORY AND ASSESSMENT
7. Present and Future Needs
8. Site Potential Assessed
9. Environmental Policies
10. Alternative Development Concepts Examined
11. SITE PLAN
12. Planning Approval sought by client
13. Design and Management Briefs developed
Site Inventory and Assessment
- Involves a thorough assessment of the natural environment and the associated physical characteristics of the site and its surroundings.
- Such factors are found above, below, and on the ground; make up the nature of the site;
- Knowing these factors and their interrelationships enables one to determine site constraints (threats) and potentials (opportunities).
- Knowledge of constraints and threats can mitigate or minimize potential damage or adverse effects that site development may cause on the ecological (i.e., physical/biological) and social fabric within the site or within the general vicinity of the site.
- Knowledge of the potentials and opportunities of the site can clarify, reveal or enhance the nature of the site as well as the plan or design.
Data/Information Required in Preparing a Site Profile
- Site Inventory and Assessment require the collection of comprehensive and structured sets of data descriptive of the geo-physical, biological and social environment in the site and around the site. A site profile is the outcome of this activity.
Why Prepare a Site Profile?
- For planners, it provides information on the status and characteristics of the various aspects of the environment which are indicative of the potentials and weaknesses of a particular area.
- For decision makers, the site profile provides information on the environment needed in the formulation of policies, strategies or business decisions pertaining specifically to the area or to the environment in general.
- For those concerned with the assessment and monitoring of the environment, the site profile provides benchmark information on the environment with which various scenarios can be drawn up with the introduction of particular development project(s).
In general, the Site Profile is a valuable tool:
- In making better decisions and trade-offs for more rational or sustainable development.
- In taking stock of or assessing the status of the environment of an area as of a given time.
- In providing information on the environment for consideration in project planning and development as well as for monitoring and evaluation of a project’s impact on the environment;
- In preparing and evaluating the Initial Environmental Examination or the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); and
- In providing information for the purposes of management and conservation of the environment
Description and Basis of Site Layout
Given the project’s general location, it is often desirable to draw up a site master plan to indicate the spatial arrangement of the various facilities and show the allocation of spaces to the different activities involved.
- Such plan will help ensure that the most functionally efficient layout, compatible with an acceptable standard of environmental quality is obtained.
- Site and land use planning involves, firstly, a consideration of various developmental purposes.
- A sieve map which grades the various sections of the area according to the degree of physical difficulty in developing them, is helpful in allocating the land for different uses.
- From this map can be noted the areas with steep slopes, low-lying sections liable to flooding, areas with weak subsoil, etc. and other sections that restrict development except at high cost.
- At the same time, areas easily suitable for various developmental uses can be shown.